jellyfish1603:

Language Studies: What is the difference between a pidgin and a creole?
Supplementary info:
Pidgins are limited and simplified languages that happen when people MUST communicate.
The next generation transforms a pidgin into a creole as it grows and changes to serve a wider range of communication needs.
Pidgins and creoles have historically had a high association with imperialism, slavery, war, refugee and trading situations.
A pidgin is nobody’s first language by definition.
An American example: Gullah, also known as GeeChee, came from the interaction between African slaves and English speakers. This creole is spoken today on Sea Island off Georgia and Carolinas.

jellyfish1603:

Language Studies: What is the difference between a pidgin and a creole?

Supplementary info:

  • Pidgins are limited and simplified languages that happen when people MUST communicate.
  • The next generation transforms a pidgin into a creole as it grows and changes to serve a wider range of communication needs.
  • Pidgins and creoles have historically had a high association with imperialism, slavery, war, refugee and trading situations.
  • A pidgin is nobody’s first language by definition.
  • An American example: Gullah, also known as GeeChee, came from the interaction between African slaves and English speakers. This creole is spoken today on Sea Island off Georgia and Carolinas.

(via linguisten)

"What the Obama Administration seems unable to grasp, or finds inconvenient to admit, is that the peace process cannot just be paused; to say that the parties to the conflict must want peace more than Americans is to condemn them to leaders who, in the short run, benefit from conflict, and hand Americans, and everyone else, an insufferable future."
- Bernard Avishai on the crisis in Gaza: http://nyr.kr/1mNifoU (via newyorker)

(Source: newyorker.com, via newyorker)

"First they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they fight you, then you win."
- Mahatma Gandhi (via arthi-07)

(via joonheung)

todayinhistory:

July 14th 1789: Storming of the Bastille

On this day in 1789, French revolutionaries stormed the Bastille fortress in Paris. This event came towards the beginning of the French Revolution which led to the toppling of the monarchy and execution of King Louis XVI. The dramatic events at the Bastille were precipitated by the King’s refusal to approve the reorganisation of the Estates-General, a general assembly designed to represent the clergy, the nobles and the common people. In response to fears of a counter-attack by the King’s forces, revolutionaries planed to seize the weapons in the Bastille. The prison was lightly guarded and the revolutionaries were able to force their way through and the ensuing violence led to the surrender of the defenders. The Bastille was where the French monarchy held their opponents, including figures like the mysterious ‘Man in the Iron Mask’ from 1670 to 1703, and so the mob also released the seven prisoners held there. The Bastille had represented ironclad royal authority and its fall was a major turning point in the revolution. After the Bastille the revolution escalated, with the passage of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and abolition of feudalism in August. A republic was declared in 1792 and the King was beheaded in January of the next year. For its prominent role in the French Revolution, this day is commemorated in France as a public holiday, Bastille Day.

"Is this a revolt?"
"No Majesty, this is a revolution
- supposed conversation between Louis XVI and adviser Duc de Liancourt after the storming of the Bastille

theparisreview:

“Montaigne’s first language—in sixteenth-century France—was Latin. Every morning the child was awakened by soft music. As a baby, he was sent to live with a peasant family for three years so he would not become accustomed to great wealth.”
Read this week’s staff picks, including Montaigne’s strict pedagogical curriculum, an enlightened mental vacation, and Bay Area ceramists.

theparisreview:

“Montaigne’s first language—in sixteenth-century France—was Latin. Every morning the child was awakened by soft music. As a baby, he was sent to live with a peasant family for three years so he would not become accustomed to great wealth.”

Read this week’s staff picks, including Montaigne’s strict pedagogical curriculum, an enlightened mental vacation, and Bay Area ceramists.

unconsciousintensity:

Merton’s 5 types (Robert K. Merton’s Deviance Typology)
Conformists: accept the cultural goals of society, and accept the socially approved means for attaining those goals. Ritualists: reject the cultural goals of society, but accept the socially approved means for attaining those goals. Innovators: accept the cultural goals of society, but reject the socially approved means for attaining those goals. Retreatists: reject both the cultural goals and the approved means of attaining those goals; ‘retreat.’ Rebels: reject both the cultural goals and the approved means of attaining those goals; substitute new goals and new means of attaining those goals.

Interesting

unconsciousintensity:

Merton’s 5 types
(Robert K. Merton’s Deviance Typology)

Conformists: accept the cultural goals of society, and accept the socially approved means for attaining those goals.

Ritualists: reject the cultural goals of society, but accept the socially approved means for attaining those goals.

Innovators: accept the cultural goals of society, but reject the socially approved means for attaining those goals.

Retreatists: reject both the cultural goals and the approved means of attaining those goals; ‘retreat.’

Rebels: reject both the cultural goals and the approved means of attaining those goals; substitute new goals and new means of attaining those goals.

Interesting

(via socio-logic)